Liver cancer

Incidence in Minnesota:

Liver cancer is increasing in Minnesota

Liver cancer is increasing in Minnesotans and nationwide. Rates have more than doubled in Minnesota. All racial and ethnic groups are experiencing a significant increase in the risk of developing this cancer.

It is difficult to compare Minnesota incidence rates for liver cancer with that of other states before 2012 because the Minnesota Cancer Reporting System (MCRS) only included cancers that were confirmed by examining tissue under a microscope - unlike other state or regional cancer registries. Beginning in 2012, MCRS started collecting data on cancers that are diagnosed via medical procedures such as radiography. The increase in rates in 2012 may be due in part to this change in data collection. 

From 2016 to 2018, approximately 373 new cases of liver cancer in males and 162 new cases in females were diagnosed in Minnesota residents each year. Survival for liver cancer is very poor because signs and symptoms do not usually appear until the cancer is quite advanced.

Liver cancer in Minnesota

Age-adjusted rate of  new liver cancer cases.
Age-adjusted rate of  new liver cancer cases.


The rate of liver cancer is more than two times higher among males than females. The rate is increasing each year. Since 1988, incidence rates increased by about 4.8% per year among males. Since 1988, incidence rates increased by about 4.4% per year among females.  Most recently, the age-adjusted incidence rate of liver cancer was 10.5 new cases per 100,000 males and 4.2 new cases per 100,000 females. The increase in 2012 is partly due to the collection of clinically-diagnosed cancers beginning in that year.

Liver cancer in Minnesota, by age

Rate of new liver cancer cases, aggregated from 2009 to 2018.
Rate of new liver cancer cases, aggregated from 2009 to 2018.


The rate of liver cancer increases with age and is two to four times higher among males than females in each age group. The highest incidence rates occur among males aged 75-84 years.

Incidence in Minnesota, by race/ethnicity

Age-adjusted rate of new liver cancer cases, aggregated from 2009 to 2018.
Age-adjusted rate of new liver cancer cases, aggregated from 2009 to 2018.


There are large differences in liver cancer incidence between different racial and ethnic groups in Minnesota. From 2009 to 2018, the rate of liver cancer was highest among Black Minnesotans (with 22.5 new cases per 100,000) and lowest among white, non-Hispanic Minnesotans (with 5.5 new cases per 100,000).

About liver cancer

Liver cancer begins in the cells of the liver or in the intrahepatic bile duct. The liver is just below the right lung, while the intrahepatic bile ducts are tubes within the liver that carry bile to the gallbladder. This does not include cancers that spread to the liver from other parts of the body. The most common form of liver cancer in adults begins in the cells of the liver and is known as hepatocellular carcinoma. 

What are risk factors for liver cancer?

  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C virus is the biggest cause of liver cancer worldwide. In the U.S., hepatitis C is the more common cause of liver cancer. Chronic hepatitis C infection can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption.
  • Diabetes and obesity.
  • Long term exposure to aflatoxins (a fungus that contaminates certain foods) is a major risk factor in some parts of the world - though not the United States because of federal regulations that keep contaminated products from reaching consumers.
  • Long term exposure to high levels of arsenic through drinking water that contains high levels of naturally-occurring arsenic (e.g. contaminated private wells).
  • Occupational exposures to vinyl chloride (a chemical used in plastic manufacturing) causes a particular type of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). 
  • Race: Liver cancer is two to three times more common among people that identify as Black, Asian or Pacific Islander, or American Indian than among people that identify as non-Hispanic white.

Take steps to prevent liver cancer.

  • All children should be vaccinated against hepatitis B, as should adults at high risk for exposure to hepatitis B virus (e.g., health care workers).
  • Avoid and treat hepatitis infections, especially hepatitis B and C.
  • Limit alcohol use.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight can reduce the likelihood of both diabetes and liver cancer.
  • Test your private well water for high arsenic levels. For more information, see Owner's Guide to Wells.
  • Avoid known occupational exposures that increase the risk of liver cancer (e.g. long-term, intense exposure to vinyl chloride).


Last updated May 2021. Updates are made when data become available.